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Cursus honorum



Cursus honorum era el nombre que recibía la carrera política o escalafón de responsabilidades públicas en la Antigua Roma. Se instauró durante la República y siguió existiendo durante el imperio, sobre todo para la administración de las provincias dependientes del Senado. Durante la época republicana, la organización y desarrollo de la carrera política respondía a requisitos arbitrarios y de sectores con grandes privilegios, sin embargo, esta situación se transformará con la llegada del imperio, pues se irá normalizando y regulando el ejercicio de determinadas funciones públicas (con diferentes fines, requisitos y duraciones) que servían tanto de preparación para los jóvenes en las tareas administrativas futuras como de regulador de la sociedad.

El cursus honorum establecía el orden y la jerarquía por la que se regían las magistraturas romanas, así como el modo de cumplirlas. Dicha carrera quedó regulada en el año 180 a. C. por la Ley Villia Annalis que estipulaba su ordenación de menor a mayor rango y la edad mínima para desempeñar cada uno de los cargos. En los últimos años de la República, hacia 81 a. C., Sila fijó el modelo consistente en un servicio militar previo seguido de los cargos de cuestor, pretor, cónsul y censor.[1]

El cursus honorum senatorial constaba de una fase preparatoria con varias especialidades (vigintiviratus), seis magistraturas ordinarias (cuestura, edilidad, tribunado, pretura, consulado y censura) y una extraordinaria (dictadura), la cual bajo la República solo se concedía por decisión del Senado en caso de peligro exterior o interior, y no podía sobrepasar los seis meses de duración.

El cursus honorum solía desarrollarse según las siguientes fases:

Los tres escalafones principales (quaestor, praetor, consul), separados por periodos de descanso, otorgaban un rango respectivo (vir quaestorius, vir praetorius, vir consularis) y permitían ocupar otros destinos y cargos específicos. El noble romano que quisiera destacar, debía empezar por el rango más bajo y cubrir todos los peldaños hasta llegar a cónsul, y por último a censor y a princeps senatus. Todo esto cambió mucho a lo largo de los años y hubo una reforma importante llevada a cabo por los Gracos.

Desde Augusto, bajo el Imperio, pasó a ser una carrera funcionarial, ya que el poder político y militar estaba solamente en manos del emperador. Este podía hacer adelantar escalones a determinados senadores de su preferencia mediante la adlectio, o proponerles para uno determinado, en cuyo caso se les llamaba candidati.

En la época imperial se añadió la obligación de pasar por una función militar en una legión como tribuno laticlavio, de los cuales cada legión tenía uno, siendo los otros cinco del orden ecuestre; este mando se desempeñaba antes o después del vigintivirato.

En la época de Augusto se fue creando un cursus honorum específico para los equites, caballeros o miembros del ordo equester que, en general, se destinaban al ejército (tribuno angusticlavio), y más adelante a ocupar puestos en la administración imperial.

A history and description of Roman political institutions

Novelas históricas

Los ojos de Hipatía



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